PHY01 Basics of Ultrasound Echography

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Basics of Ultrasound Echography

Investigation of a specimen with enclosed defects using the pulse-echo method

A specimen with enclosed defects is examined using the pulse-echo method. Amplitude scans are performed from different sides of the body. The echo signals depicted in the recorded A-scans are examined and analyzed.

Keywords: propagation of ultrasonic waves, sound propagation time, sound velocity, sound characteristic impedance, reflection and transmission, pulse-echo method, ultrasonic A-scan

The pulse-echo method forms the basis of numerous imaging methods in non-invasive medical diagnostics or non-destructive material testing. In the method, an ultrasound probe converts electrical impulses into mechanical vibrations. These are coupled into the body to be examined and pass through it as sound waves. Waves reflected by disturbances run back to the probe and are converted back into an electrical signal. The temporal recording of the amplitude of this signal (amplitude scan) is graphically displayed as a so-called ultrasound A-image. Using the reflection echoes in the A-image, sound travel times can be determined, the speed of sound in the material can be calculated and disturbances in the body can be detected.


PHY01 Schematic test block

PHY01 Schematic test block

The screenshot above of the measurement software shows a typical ultrasound A-scan of the test block. The following can be seen: the initial echo, the echo of a disturbance and the ground echo at the material-air boundary at the opposite end of the body. The value to be determined for the speed of sound in the test block (acrylic) is approximately 2700 m/s. The depth of the disturbances' reflection echoes in the test body can be determined using the determined speed of sound and the measured sound travel times.


Item No. Designation
10400 Ultrasonic echoscope GS200
10151 Ultrasonic probe 1 MHz
10201 Test block (transparent)
10204 – optional: test block (black)
70200 Ultrasound gel


PHY02 Speed ​​of sound in solids
PHY03 Sound attenuation in solids
PHY21 Reflection and transmission at interfaces
IND01 Non-destructive testing (NDT)
IND06 Angle head testing
MED02 Ultrasound examinations on the breast model (mammography)
MED04 Biometrics on the eye model
MED09 Breast sonography
MED10 Ultrasound of the gallbladder