The X-ray apparatus is a fully-featured, microprocessor-controlled device designed for conducting a wide variety of experiments in physics and related disciplines. Experiments at the boundary between physics and medicine include the transillumination of objects and observing them on a fluorescent screen or on an X-ray film, and experiments on ionization and dosimetry. In physics, the experiments range from atomic physics to
solid-state physics. You can set all parameters on the X-ray apparatus manually and read them from the digital display. The two arms of the two-circle goniometer (included with 554 801) can be controlled either individually or with 2:1 coupling, and either manually or automatically. Usually, the sensor on the sensor arm is a Geiger-Müller counter tube, while on the target arm a crystal, a scattering body or an absorber is pivoted or turned as the target. A rate meter for a Geiger-Müller counter tube (end-window counter) is also integrated. This means that you can use the Xray apparatus as a stand-alone device, in conjunction with a computer via the built-in USB port or with an XY recorder connected. It is possible to carry out the following experiments with the Xray apparatus: Transillumination and X-ray photography Ionization and dosimetry
Material-dependent and thickness-dependent attenuation of X-rays
Continuum and characteristic lines, investigating the X-ray source
Fine structure and shell model of the atom
Energy-dependent absorption and K-edges
Moseley’s law and determining the Rydberg frequency
Compton effect
Duane-Hunt relation (determination of Planck’s constant
from the limit wavelength)
Bragg reflection for determining the lattice plane spacing of various crystals
Investigating crystal structures by means of Laue diagrams and Debye Scherrer photographs
X-ray diffraction analysis at polycrystalline metal foils and powder samples, texture X-ray spectroscopy with the X-ray energy detector (559 938)

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